Molds & Mycotoxins & Immune Dysfunctions


  • Mold Warriors  By Dr Ritchie Shoemaker. Chapt.23. Mold at Ground Zero for CFS  "History doesn't remember the critics" page 447

    ' One of the researchers who was well represented at the CFS meetings was Dr Kenney De Meirleir from Belgium. He has published extensively on the different mechanisms that contribute to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Before I could talk to him, however, Dr.Robert Suhadolnik presented his data on the enzyme complexity involving RNase-L. He had been working with Drs Peterson and Cheney for some time.
    I asked him about mold and CFS. Making me fall to the floor, he said, "Oh yes, we know a lot about mold exposure in the original cohort in Incline Village. The source of activation of the endopeptidase that cleaves RNase L is increased response of a cytokine, alpha interferon."
    "Now wait," I said, "our data is very clear that alpha interferon levels are increased like crazy in mold patients compared to controls. Can we say that mold exposure doesn't change RNase L like you have reported in putative viral CFS patients?"
    Dr. De Meirleir chimed in, "We know that cytokine increases are important activators of the subsequent increased activity of these enzymes. Given your data, we need to look again at our data in which we clearly see changes in innate immune responses in CFS. Mold could be the common denominator. '
  • Johanning E, Morey PR, Jarvis B (1993): Clinical-Epidemiological Investigation of Health Effects Caused by Stachybotrys atra Contamination. In Seppanen O, Steri J, Kainlauri E (eds): “Indoor Air 93″ Helsinki: FiSIAQ, 1:225.
  • Model of role played by Mold and Mycotoxins in immune system, neurological and endocrine illnesses. Dr. Shoemaker et al. (Click on image).

    The Biotoxin Pathway
  • Shoemaker R, Hudnell D. A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic, biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2004; 1-18.
  • Shoemaker R, Rash J, Simon E. Sick Building syndrome in water damaged buildings: generalization of the chronic biotoxin associated illness paradigm to indoor toxigenic fungi. Bioaerosols, fungi, bacteria, mycotoxins and human health. Dr med Eckardt Johanning MD editor 2006.
  • Shoemaker R, Hudnell, House D, Kempen A, Pakes G. Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment. Advances in Therapy 2006; 23: 1-11.
  • Lecture by Dr. Shoemaker on the effects of chronic myoctoxins and mold exposure on the immune system



  • Lecture by Dr. Andrew Campbell on the effects of chronic myoctoxins and mold exposure on the immune system

  • Shoemaker R, Lipsey R. Results of health screening and visual contrast testing. St. Bernard's Parish, Louisiana. 2006. published on-line
  • Shoemaker R, House D. Sick building syndrome (SBS) and exposure to water-damaged buildings: Time series study, clinical trial and mechanisms. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2006; 573-588.
  • Shoemaker R, Lawson W. Pfiesteria in Estuarine Waters: The question of health risks. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115: A2-A3.
  • Shoemaker R, Lin K. Inside Indoor Air Quality: Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Filtration News 2007; 32-36.
  • Shoemaker R, Maizel M. Treatment of elevated C4a in patients with CFS using low doses of erythropoietin safely reduces symptoms and lowers C4a: a prospective clinical trial 2007, IACFS (conference peer review).
  • Shoemaker R, Giclas P, Crowder C, House D. Complement split products C3a and C4a are early markers of acute Lyme disease in tick bite patients in the United States. International Archives of Allergy Immunol 2008; 146: 255-261.
  • Shoemaker R, Maizel M. Innate immunity, MR spectroscopy, HLA DR, TGF beta-1, VIP and capillary hypoperfusion define acute and chronic human illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. 2008. International Healthy Buildings (conference peer review)
  • Shoemaker R, Maizel M. Exposure to interior environments of water-damaged buildings causes a CFS-like illness in pediatric patients: a case/control study. 2009 bulletin of the IACFS
  • Shoemaker R, House D. Characterization of chronic human illness associated with exposure to cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms predominated by Microcystis. 2009 Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms pg 653.
  • Shoemaker R, Exposure to water damaged buildings causes a readily identifiable chronic inflammatory response syndrome successfully treated by a sequential intervention protocol. Biology of Fungi, International Mycology Congress 2009 (conference peer review)
  • Shoemaker R, House D, Ryan J. Defining the neurotoxin derived illness chronic ciguatera using markers of chronic systemic inflammatory disturbances: A case/control study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2010; 633-639.
  • Shefer A , Dobbins JG , Fukuda K , Steele L , Koo D , Nisenbaum R , Rutherford GW . Fatiguing illness among employees in three large state office buildings, California, 1993: was there an outbreak? J Psychiatr Res. 1997 Jan-Feb;31(1):31-43. PMID: 9201645
  • Gharibzadeh S , Hoseini SS . Is there any relation between moldy building exposure and chronic fatigue syndrome? Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1243-4. PMID: 16527430
  • Mold Warriors :Fighting America's hidden health threat
    by Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker and Patty Schmidt
     10 / 10    
    Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker is a medical doctor based in Maryland, USA. He is one of the top experts on mycotoxins in the world. He has been treating ME / CFS patients since the late 1990's, and he believes that myctoxins are a major factor in some ME / CFS subgroups and in other illnesses. Mycotoxins are accepted by the CDC and NIH in the USA as being hazardous to health.



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