Ciguatera and ME

A high percentage of ME / CFS patients have Ciguatera infection or Ciguatera type poisoning. This toxin can be produced internally in the human body or it can be acquired from fish and fish products which are contaminated with Ciguatera toxin. Cattle and chickens fed with contaminated fish can develop Ciguatera poisoning and pass this on to humans. Those people infected with the Ciguatera toxin are at high risk of developing Polymyositis. This combination (Ciguatera and Polymyositis) is destructive to muscle tissue, the CNS, brain, immune system and cellular ion channel pathways

  • "Chronic phase lipids in sera of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), hepatitis B, and cancer with antigenic epitope resembling ciguatoxin, as assessed with MAb-CTX." J Clin Lab Anal. (2003)  (PDF file)
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • "Chronic phase lipids in sera of several chronic diseases reacting with MAb-CTX (antibody to ciguatoxin)"  Journal of Toxicology: Toxins Review (2003) (PDF file)
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • Ciguatera Toxin FAQ  (2003; 2005)
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • The Ciguatera Epitope: So What Do We Really Know Thus Far?
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • Presentation given by Dr. Yoshitsugi Hokama at the International Symposium on Toxins and Natural Products (2002)  (PDF file format)
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA,  

  • Neurotoxin Discovered in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • The Neurology of ciguatera (PDF file format or  text-only format).  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry (2001)
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, USA, 

  • "Many CFS patients in the study had higher levels of the toxin (ciguatera) than the
    patients with cancer, hepatitis or acute ciguatera poisoning."
    Research by Dr. Yoshitsugi Hokama presented to the International Symposium on Toxins
    and Natural Products in Okinawa, Japan on November 17-19, 2002. The research, for the first time, discovered ciguatoxin, a potent neurotoxin, in the blood of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients.
    Reported by National CFIDS Foundation, Winter Newsletter 2002,

  • " Let me start with the following: What do we really know at this time about the ciguatera epitope? Well, we do know that CFS patients test abnormal by three different scientific methods which include (A) Dr. Yoshitsugi Hokama's monoclonal antibody based ciguatera test (University of Hawaii Medical School); (B) Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) neuroblastoma test; (C) Competitive assay using the synthetic fragment of ciguatera. These together greatly assist in the identification of the toxin's structure, amount, and its unique characterization. In the Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis publication, available from our website on the Medical Breakthrough page or to our members by mail (see materials section in this issue), it was reported that 96% of CFS patients were identified as having abnormal amounts of ciguatera toxin "
    The Ciguatera Epitope: So What Do We Really Know Thus Far?
    by Alan Cocchetto (2003), The National CFIDS Foundation

  • Pearn J., Ciguatera - A potent cause of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome EOS J Immunol Immunopathol XV 1/2: 63-65, 1995

  • Ting J, Brown A, Ciguatera poisoning: A global issue with common management problems Eur J Emerg Med Dec; 8(4): 295-300, 2001

  • Racciatti D., Vecchiet J, Ceccomancini A, Ricci F, Pizzigallo E Chronic Fatigue Syndrome following a toxic exposure Sci Total Environ Apr 10; 270(1-3): 27-31, 2001

  • Chaudhuri A., Watson WS, Pearn J, Behan PO. The symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome are related to abnormal ion channel function Med Hypotheses Jan; 54(1):59-63 , 2000

  • Chaudhuri A, Behan PO. Neurological Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 6(3-4): 51-68, 2000

  • Pearn J., Differential Diagnosis: The Challenge of Chronic Fatigue Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 7(4): 17-31, 2000

  • Racciatti D, Barbeno A, Veechiet J, Pizzigallo E. Clinical and Pathogenetical Characterization of 238 Patients of a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Italian Center Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 5(3-4), 1999

  • Barton ED et al. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: A Southern California Epidemic Western J Med 163(1): 31-34, 1995

  • Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH et al. Ciguatera in Australia. Occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management Med J Aust 145: 584-590, 1986 [Ed. Note: We have heard from dozens and dozens of our members who have taken advantage of the testing. All, thus far, have been positive.]

  • Stommel EW, Parsonnet J, Jenkyn LR Polymyositis after ciguatera toxin exposure. Arch Neurol. 1991 Aug;48(8):874-7

  • Stommel EW, Jenkyn LR, Parsonnet J Another case of polymyositis after ciguatera toxin exposure. Arch Neurol. 1993 Jun;50(6):571

  • Palafox NA, Jain LG, Pinano AZ, Gulick TM, Williams RK, Schatz IJ Successful treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol. JAMA. 1988 May 13;259(18):2740-2.

  • Warner CL, Heffner RR, Cookfair D Neuromuscular Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chapter 38, 348-351; The Clinical and Scientific Basis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1992

  • Sigurgeirsson B, Lindelof B, Edhag O, Allander E Risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis. A population-based study. N Engl J Med. 1992 Feb 6;326(6):363-7

  • Hill CL, Zhang Y, Sigurgeirsson B, Pukkala E, Mellemkjaer L, Airio A, Evans SR, Felson DT Frequency of specific cancer types in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a population-based study. Lancet. 2001 Jan 13;357(9250):96-100

  • Angulo P Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 18;346(16):1221-31 Review

  • Yuan QX, Nagao Y, Gaal K, Hu B, French SW Mechanisms of mallory body formation induced by okadaic acid in drug-primed mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 1998 Oct;65(2):87-103

  • Shoemaker RC., Residential and recreational acquisition of possible estuary-associated syndrome: a new approach to successful diagnosis and treatment. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Oct;109 Suppl 5:791-6

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