Muscle Abnormalities

  • Richards SCM et al. Muscle metabolites detected in urine in Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome may suggest ongoing muscle damage. Abstract 382 from Conference Proceedings of the British Society of Rheumatologists, 24-27 April 2001, Edinburgh.

  • “These data show that enterovirus RNA is present in skeletal muscle of some patients with postviral fatigue syndrome up to 20 years after onset of disease and suggest that persistent viral infection has an aetiological role. These results provide further evidence that Coxsackie B virus plays a major role in ME, either directly or by triggering immunological responses which result in abnormal muscle metabolism  (JRSM 1988:81:325-331)
  • “The most important findings were type II fibre predominance, subtle and scattered fibre necrosis and bizarre tubular structures and mitochondrial abnormalities. About 75% of the patients had definitely abnormal single fibre electromyography results” (Goran A Jamal   Stig Hansen   JNNP 1985:48:691-694)
  • Jones DE, Hollingsworth KG, Taylor R, Blamire AM, Newton J (2010), "Abnormalities in pH handling by peripheral muscle and potential regulation by the autonomic nervous system in chronic fatigue syndrome", J Intern Med Apr;267(4):394-401,
  • McCully KK, et al. Muscle metabolism with blood flow restriction in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Appl Physiol 2004 Mar;96(3):871-8
  • Siemionow V, Fang Y, Calabrese L, Sahgal V, Yue GH. Altered central nervous system signal during motor performance in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol ( 2004 ) 115 : 2372 - 2381. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2004.05.012.
  • McCully KK, Natelson BH. Impaired oxygen delivery to muscle in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond) ( 1999 ) 97 : 603 - 608. doi: 10.1042/CS19980372
  • Lawrie SM, MacHal e SM, Cavanagh JT, O'Carroll RE, Goodwin GM. The difference in patterns of motor and cognitive function in chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depressive illness. Psychol Med ( 2000 ) 30 : 433 - 442. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799001816.
  • Fulle S, Belia S, Vecchiet J, Morabito C, Vecchiet L, Fanò G (2003) Modification of the functional capacity of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuromuscul Disord 13(6):479–484
  • Fulcher KY, White PD. Strength and physiological response to exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr ( 2000 ) 69 : 302 - 307. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.69.3.302.
  • Paul L, Wood L, Behan WM, Maclaren WM. Demonstration of delayed recovery from fatiguing exercis e in chronic fatigue syndrome. Eur J Neurol ( 1999 )
  • Cerebral vascular control is associated with skeletal muscle pH in chronic fatigue syndrome patients both at rest and during dynamic stimulation.
    He J, Hollingsworth KG, Newton JL, Blamire AM. Neuroimage (Amst). 2013 Jan 5;2:168-73
  • Behan WMH, Holt J, Kay DH, Moonic P (1999), "In vitro Study of Muscle Aerobic Metabolism in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • "Muscle biopsies showed necrosis and type II fibre predominance” (JRCGP: 1987:37:212-216)
  • Cea G, Bendahan D, Manners D, Hilton-Jones D, Lodi R, Styles P, Taylor DJ (2002), "Reduced oxidative phosphorylation and proton efflux suggest reduced capillary blood supply in skeletal muscle of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a quantitative 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI study", Brain Jul;125(Pt 7):1635-45
  • Wong R, Lopaschuk G, Zhu G, Walker D, Catellier D, Burton D, et al. Skeletal muscle metabolism in the chronic fatigue syndrome. In vivo assessment by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chest. 1992;102:1716–22.
  • Arnold DL, Bore PJ, Radda GK, Styles P, Taylor DJ. Excessive intracellular acidosis of skeletal muscle on exercise in a patient with a post-viral exhaustion/fatigue syndrome. A 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study. Lancet. 1984;1:1367–9.
  • McCully KK, Natelson BH, Iotti S, Sisto S, Leigh Jr JS. Reduced oxidative muscle metabolism in chronic fatigue syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1996;19:621–5.
  • Crit Rev Neurobiol: 1988:4:2:157-178).
  • An impaired capacity to synthesise muscle protein, a finding which cannot be explained by disuse (Clinical Science 1988: 75: Suppl 18:45).

ME outbreaks suggesting Mitochondria and Muscle abnormalities and role of viruses and other pathogens
Viruses have been isolated from the muscles of ME patients during epidemics. Using PCR methods, 50% or more of patients had evidence of such infection.

  • Hyde BM. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome): an historic perspective. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1991 Jan;17 Suppl 1E:5-8. PMID: 1669354
  • Brodrick J. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: yuppie 'flu--a real illness. Interview by Charlotte Alderman. Nurs Stand. 1990 Aug 29-Sep 4;4(49):18. PMID: 2119747
  • Wilson CW. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: an alternative theory. J R Soc Med. 1990 Aug; 83(8):481-3. PMID: 2231572
  • Dowsett EG, Ramsay AM, McCartney RA, Bell EJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection? Postgrad Med J. 1990 Jul;66(777):526-30. PMID: 2170962 
  • Lynch S, Seth R. Depression and myalgic encephalomyelitis. J R Soc Med. 1990 May; 83(5):341. PMID: 2380955
  • Shepherd C. How I treat myalgic encephalomyelitis: forum. Practitioner. 1990 Apr 8;234 (1486):326. PMID: 2371218
  • Powell S. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Gen Pract. 1990 Apr;40(333):170. No abstract available. PMID: 2115368
  • Hodson AD. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. J R Soc Med. 1990 Mar;83(3):199-200. PMID: 20894766
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. J R Soc Med. 1990 Mar;83(3):199-200. No abstract available. PMID: 2325071 
  • Prasher D, Smith A, Findley L. Sensory and cognitive event-related potentials in myalgic encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 Mar;53(3):247-53. PMID: 2324756
  • Grist NR. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: postviral fatigue and the heart. BMJ. 1989 Nov 11;299(6709):1219. PMID: 2513065
  • Lev M. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. J R Soc Med. 1989 Nov;82(11):693-4. PMID: 2593126
  • Snow P. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1989 Aug 23;102(874):449.  
  • Murdoch JC. The myalgic encephalomyelitis syndrome. N Z Med J. 1989 Jul 26;102 (872):372-3. PMID: 2797553
  • Coakley JH. Myalgic encephalomyelitis and muscle fatigue. BMJ. 1989 Jun 24;298 (6689):1711-2. PMID: 2503189
  • Zala J. Diagnosing myalgic encephalomyelitis. Practitioner. 1989 Jun 22;233(1471): 916-9. PMID: 2594656
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. BMJ. 1989 Jun 10;298(6687):1577-8. PMID: 2503125
  • Welch JC. Abnormal erythrocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1989 Apr 26;102(866):202. PMID: 2710458
  • Simpson LO. Nondiscocytic erythrocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1989 Mar 22;102(864):126-7. PMID: 2927808
  • Cant BR. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1989 Feb 8;102(861):52. PMID: 2739970
  • Willoughby E. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1989 Jan 25;102(860):19-20. PMID: 2913521
  • Shepherd C. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--is it a real disease? Practitioner. 1989 Jan;233 (1461):41-2, 44, 46. PMID: 2798285
  • Murdoch JC. The myalgic encephalomyelitis syndrome. Fam Pract. 1988 Dec;5(4): 302-6. Review. PMID: 2852613
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1988 Nov 23;101(858):800-1. PMID: 3194079
  • Hyde B, Bergmann S. Akureyri disease (myalgic encephalomyelitis), forty years later. Lancet. 1988 Nov 19;2(8621):1191-2. PMID: 2903396 
  • Willoughby EW. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1988 Nov 9;101(857):773. PMID: 3186037
  • Spracklen FH. The chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis)--myth or mystery? S Afr Med J. 1988 Nov 5;74(9):448-52. Review. PMID: 3055363
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1988 Oct 26;101(856 Pt 1):672. No abstract available. PMID: 3186016
  • Gordon N. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1988 Oct;30(5):677-82. Review. PMID: 3068084
  • Murdoch JC. Cell-mediated immunity in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis syndrome. N Z Med J. 1988 Aug 10;101(851):511-2. PMID: 3261407
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis, or what? Lancet. 1988 Jul 9;2(8602):100-1. PMID: 2898668
  • Holborow PL. Pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1988 Jun 6;148(11):598, 600. PMID: 3374430
  • Lloyd AR, Wakefield D, Boughton C, Dwyer J. What is myalgic encephalomyelitis? Lancet. 1988 Jun 4;1(8597):1286-7. PMID: 2897549
  • Archard LC, Bowles NE, Behan PO, Bell EJ, Doyle D. Postviral fatigue syndrome: persistence of enterovirus RNA in muscle and elevated creatine kinase. J R Soc Med. 1988 Jun;81(6):326-9. PMID: 3404526
  • Bell EJ, McCartney RA, Riding MH. Coxsackie B viruses and myalgic encephalomyelitis. J R Soc Med. 1988 Jun;81(6):329-31. PMID: 2841461
  • Jennekens FG, van Gijn J. [Postviral fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1988 May 28;132(22):999-1001. Dutch. PMID: 3380192
  • Wakefield D, Lloyd A, Dwyer J, Salahuddin SZ, Ablashi DV. Human herpesvirus 6 and myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1988 May 7;1(8593):1059. PMID: 2896906
  • Maros K. Myalgic encephalomyelitis? Med J Aust. 1988 Apr 18;148(8):424. PMID: 3357477
  • Lloyd A, Hanna DA, Wakefield D. Interferon and myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1988 Feb 27;1(8583):471. PMID: 2893889
  • Byrne E. Idiopathic chronic fatigue and myalgia syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis): some thoughts on nomenclature and aetiology. Med J Aust. 1988 Jan 18;148(2):80-2. PMID: 3336341
  • Ho-Yen DO, Carrington D, Armstrong AA. Myalgic encephalomyelitis and alpha- interferon. Lancet. 1988 Jan 16;1(8577):125. PMID: 2891971
  • Behan PO, Behan WM. Postviral fatigue syndrome. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1988;4(2): 157-78. Review. PMID: 3063394
  • Matthew C. Myalgic encephalomyelitis and the doctor. N Z Med J. 1987 Sep 9;100(831): 569. PMID: 3451147
  • Mukherjee TM, Smith K, Maros K. Abnormal red-blood-cell morphology in myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1987 Aug 8;2(8554):328-9. PMID: 2886780
  • Archer MI. The post-viral syndrome: a review. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1987 May;37(298): 212-4. Review. PMID: 3320358 
  • Matthew C. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1986 Sep 10;99(809):678. PMID: 3463904
  • Blackmore RJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis and Immunovir. N Z Med J. 1986 Jul 9;99 (805):513. PMID: 3461389
  • McCartney RA, Banatvala JE, Bell EJ. Routine use of mu-antibody-capture ELISA for the serological diagnosis of Coxsackie B virus infections. J Med Virol. 1986 Jul;19(3): 205-12. PMID: 3016163
  • Simpson LO, Shand BI, Olds RJ. Blood rheology and myalgic encephalomyelitis: a pilot study. Pathology. 1986 Apr;18(2):190-2. PMID: 3093959
  • Rowlandson PH, Stephens JA. Cutaneous reflex responses recorded in children with various neurological disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1985 Aug;27(4):434-47. PMID: 2993087
  • Staines D. Myalgic encephalomyelitis hypothesis. Med J Aust. 1985 Jul 22;143(2):91. PMID: 4021881 
  • Byrne E, Trounce I, Dennett X. Chronic relapsing myalgia (Post viral): clinical, histological, and biochemical studies. Aust N Z J Med. 1985 Jun;15(3):305-8. PMID: 3864422
  • Maurizi CP. Raphe nucleus encephalopathy (myalgic encephalomyelitis, epidemic neuromyasthenia). Med Hypotheses. 1985 Apr;16(4):351-4. PMID: 4010573
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1985 Jan 23;98(771):20-1. PMID: 3855509
  • Gow PJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1984 Dec 12;97(769):868. PMID: 6595571
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1984 Nov 14;97(767):782. PMID: 6593632
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1984 Oct 10;97(765):698-9. PMID: 6592485
  • Bell EJ, McCartney RA. A study of Coxsackie B virus infections, 1972-1983. J Hyg (Lond). 1984 Oct;93(2):197-203. PMID: 6094660
  • Gow PJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. N Z Med J. 1984 Sep 12;97(763):620. PMID: 6591048 
  • Calder BD, Warnock PJ. Coxsackie B infection in a Scottish general practice. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1984 Jan;34(258):15-9. PMID: 6319691
  • Keighley BD, Bell EJ. Sporadic myalgic encephalomyelitis in a rural practice. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1983 Jun;33(251):339-41. PMID: 6310105
  • Fegan KG, Behan PO, Bell EJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--report of an epidemic. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1983 Jun;33(251):335-7. PMID: 6310104
  • Know your organizations: the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Association. Health Visit. 1982 Jul;55(7):350. PMID: 6921182
  • Parish G. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: faulty fibres? Nurs Mirror. 1981 Oct 7;153(15): 41-2. PMID: 6913031
  • Ramsay M. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a baffling syndrome. Nurs Mirror. 1981 Oct 7;153(15):40-1. PMID: 6913030
  • Parish JG. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1981 Apr 25;1(8226):950-1. PMID: 6112360 
  • Layzer RB. Myoglobinaemia in benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1981 Mar 21;1(8221):670. PMID: 6110899
  • Goodwin CS. Was it benign myalgic encephalomyelitis? Lancet. 1981 Jan 3;1(8210): 37-8. PMID: 6109065
  • May PG, Donnan SP, Ashton JR, Ogilvie MM, Rolles CJ. Personality and medical perception in benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1980 Nov 22;2(8204):1122-4. PMID: 6107734
  • Church AJ. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1980 Aug 23;2(4):224. PMID: 7432298
  • Behan PO. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Practitioner. 1980 Aug;224(1346): 805-7. PMID: 7433399
  • Bishop J. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1980 Jun 14;1(12):585-6, 609. PMID: 7402153
  • Ramsay AM, Rundle A. Clinical and biochemical findings in ten patients with benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 1979 Dec;55(654):856-7. PMID: 548947
  • Pampiglione G, Harris R, Kennedy J. Electro-encephalographic investigations in myalgic encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 1978 Nov;54(637):752-4. PMID: 746023
  • Behan PO. Post-infectious encephalomyelitis: some aetiological mechanisms. Postgrad Med J. 1978 Nov;54(637):755-9. PMID: 34143
  • Wookey C. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1978 Jul 15;2(6131):202. PMID: 678851
  • Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1978 Jun 3;1(6125):1436-7. PMID: 647324
  • Ramsay AM, Dowsett EG, Dadswell JV, Lyle WH, Parish JG. Icelandic disease (benign myalgic encephalomyelitis or Royal Free disease) Br Med J. 1977 May 21;1(6072): 1350. PMID: 861618 
  • Parish JG. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1973 Jun;122(571):735. PMID: 4716076
  • Ramsay AM. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1973 May;122(570): 618-9. PMID: 4717041
  • Walther H. [Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1972 Apr 11;61(15):469-80. German. PMID: 5022278
  • Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Med J Aust. 1970 Jul 4;2(1):3. PMID: 5447847
  • Lyle WH. Encephalomyelitis resembling benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1970 May 23;1(7656):1118-9. PMID: 4191997
  • Innes SG. Encephalomyelitis resembling benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1970 May 9;1(7654):969-71. PMID: 4191935
  • Mourad S, Chidiac J. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis in Lebanon. J Med Liban. 1969;22(6):735-40. PMID: 5370523
  • Kendell RE. The psychiatric sequelae of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Psychiatry. 1967 Aug;113(501):833-40. PMID: 6048369
  • Gsell O. [Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, epidemic pseudoneurasthenia]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1963 Feb 2;93:197-200. German. PMID: 13950994
  • Price JL. Myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1961 Apr 8;1(7180):737-8. PMID: 13737972
  • Pool JH, Walton JN, Brewis EG, Uldall PR, Wright AE, Gardner PS. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis in Newcastle upon Tyne. Lancet. 1961 Apr 8;1(7180):733-7. PMID: 13737057
  • Klajman A, Pinkhas B, Rannon L. [An outbreak of an epidemic of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Harefuah. 1960 May 15;58:314-5. Hebrew. PMID: 14409571
  • Bornstein B, Bechar M, Lass H. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. (Report of five cases). Psychiatr Neurol (Basel). 1960 Mar;139:132-40. PMID: 13802904
  • Daikos GK, Garzonis S, Paleologue A, Bousvaros GA, Papadoyannakis N. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis: an outbreak in a nurses' school in Athens. Lancet. 1959 Apr 4;1(7075):693-6. PMID: 13642848  
  • Acheson ED. The clinical syndrome variously called benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, Iceland disease and epidemic neuromyasthenia. Am J Med. 1959 Apr;26(4):569-95. PMID: 13637100
  • Bhatia BB, Chandra S, Bhushan C. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. J Indiana State Med Assoc. 1958 Oct;31(8):327-8. PMID: 13611265
  • Gsell O. [Encephalitis myalgica epidemica, a poliomyelitis-like disease; epidemic neuromyasthenia, benign myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1958 May 17;88(20):488-91. German. PMID: 13568694
  • Greene IM. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis; syndrome mimicking anterior poliomyelitis. J Fla Med Assoc. 1958 Apr;44(10):1105-6. PMID: 13525606
  • Galpin JF. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br J Clin Pract. 1958 Mar;12(3):186-8 passim. PMID: 13510534
  • Deisher JB. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis (Iceland disease) in Alaska. Northwest Med. 1957 Dec;56(12):1451-6. PMID: 13484090
  • [Benign epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis]. Recenti Prog Med. 1957 Nov;23(5): 525-31. Italian. PMID: 13518620 
  • EPIDEMIC myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br Med J. 1957 Oct 19;2(5050):927-8. PMID: 13472011
  • Acheson ED. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1957 Apr 20;272(6973):834-5. PMID: 13417614
  • Galpine JF, Brady C. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Lancet. 1957 Apr 13;272 (6972):757-8. PMID: 13417586
  • Lindan R. Benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. Can Med Assoc J. 1956 Oct 1;75(7): 596-7. PMID: 20325349
  • Blattner RJ. Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis (Akureyri disease, Iceland disease). J Pediatr. 1956 Oct;49(4):504-6. PMID: 13358047 
  • A new Clinical Entity ? Lancet 1956
  • Outbreak at the Royal Free. E.D Acheson. The Lancet, Volume 266, Issue 6886, Pages 394 - 395, 20 August 1955.

Years of Epidemics
1917 Van Economo reports an illness involving brain and neurological inflammation and great fatigue and some deaths. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
1918 - 1924, several outbreaks of an illness involving brain and neurological inflammation and fatigue reported throughout Europe. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
1924 England and Wales 5,039 cases of encephalitis lethargica. See paper 'New Clinical Entity' published in the Lancet in 1956.
1934 Los Angeles County Hospital. Called 'Atypical Poliomyelitis'
1936 Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin - St. Agnes Convent - Encephalitis
1937 Erstfeld, Switzerland - Abortive Poliomyelitis
1937 St. Gallen, Switzerland - Frohburg Hospital – Abortive Poliomyelitis
1939 Middlesex, England - Harefield Sanatorium
1939 Degersheim, Switzerland - Abortive Poliomyelitis
1945 Pennsylvania. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania - epidemic Pleurodynia
1946 Iceland disease resembling Poliomyelitis with the character of Akureyri disease
1948 Iceland, North Coast towns - epidemic simulating Poliomyelitis
1949 Adelaide, South Australia - a disease resembling Poliomyelitis
1949 Cambridgeshire, England - aberrant poliomyelitis. Involvement of other Enteroviruses suspected.
1950 Louisville, Kentucky -- St. Joseph 's Infirmary - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1950 Upper State New York -- outbreak resembling the Iceland disease, simulating " acute Anterior Poliomyelitis
1952 London, England - Middlesex Hospital Nurses ' Home - Encephalomyelitis associated with Poliomyelitis virus
1952 Copenhagen, Denmark - epidemic Myositis
1952 Lakeland, Florida - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1953 Coventry and District, England - an illness resembling Poliomyelitis observed in nurses
1953 Rockville, Maryland - Chestnut Lodge Hospital - Poliomyelitis-like epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1953 Jutland, Denmark - epidemic Encephalitis with vertigo
1954 Seward, Alaska - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (Iceland Disease)
1954 Berlin, Germany - British army - further outbreak of a disease resembling Poliomyelitis
1954 Liverpool, England - outbreak among medical and nursing staff in a local hospital
1955 Dalston, Cumbria, England – epidemic and sporadic outbreak of an unusual disease
1955 London, England - Royal Free Hospital - outbreak in staff and patients of Benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1955 Hampstead, London
1955 Perth, Australia - virus epidemic in waves
1955 Gilfac Goch, Wales - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1955 Durban City, South Africa - Addington Hospital - outbreak among nurses of Durban Mystery Disease
1955 Segbwema, Sierra Leone - outbreak of Encephalomyelitis
1955 Patreksfjorour and Porshofn, Iceland - unusual response to polio vaccine
1955 Northwest London, England - nurses ' residential home - acute Infective Encephalomyelitis simulating poliomyelitis
1956 Ridgefield, Connecticut - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1956 Punta Gorda Florida - outbreak of epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1956 Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, England - Lymphocytic Meningoencephalitis with myalgia and rash
1956 Pittsfield and Williamstown, Massachusetts - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1956 Coventry, England - epidemic malaise, benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1957 Brighton, South Australia - Cocksakie Echo virus Meningitis, epidemic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1958 Athens, Greece - nurses ' school - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis with periostitis and arthopathy noted.
1958 Southwest London, England - reports of sporadic cases of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1959 Newcastle Upon Tyne, England - outbreak of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1961 Basel, Switzerland - sporadic cases of benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1961 New York State - outbreak of epidemic Neuromyasthenia in a convent
1964 Northwest London, England - epidemic malaise, epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1964 Franklin, Kentucky - outbreak of Neuromyasthenia in a factory
1967 Edinburgh, Scotland - sporadic cases resembling benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1968 " Fraidek, Lebanon - benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1969 Brooklyn, New York - State University of New York Downstate Medical Center - epidemic Neuromyasthenia, unidentified symptom complex
1970 Lackland Air Force Base, Texas - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1970 London, England - Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children - outbreak of Neuromyasthenia among nurses
1975 Sacramento, California - Mercy San Juan Hospital - Infectious Venulitis, epidemic " Phelobodynia
1976 Southwest Ireland - epidemic Neuromyasthenia, benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1977 Dallas – Fort Worth, Texas - epidemic Neuromyasthenia
1979 Southampton, England - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1980 West Kilbridge, Ayrshire, Scotland - epidemic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1980 San Francisco, California – epidemic persistent flu-like illness
1981 Stirlingshire, Scotland - sporadic Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1982 West Otago, Dunedin and Hamilton, New Zealand - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
1983 Los Angeles, California - initial cases of an unknown, chronic symptom complex involving profound "fatigue"
1984 Lake Tahoe Area of California/Nevada - start of a yearlong epidemic involving " over 160 cases of chronic illness eventually characterized as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Source: Paradigm Change web site


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