Chronic Lyme Disease
& Co-infections
- Chlamydia pneumonia, Babesia, Herpes family viruses, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Bartonella, Strep A and B, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Yersinia, Toxoplasma gondi, and Coxsackie virus


Scientific and Medical Evidence - Listing of Research conducted worldwide section
Serious Bacteria Infections


Three highly experienced medical doctors and ME specialists Dr. Hugh Dereham, Dr. Samuel Shorr and Dr. Kenny De Meirleir are regularly finding that between 40% - 80% of ME patients have Chronic Lyme disease. See Serious Bacteria Infections . The symptoms of Chronic Lyme disease are the same as M.E., e.g. painful joints and muscles, ‘brain fog’, memory problems, headaches, Flu-like, neurological symptoms, brain lesions, stiff neck, numbness, tingling, night sweats, extreme fatigue, muscle pain, cardiac abnormalties, HPA axis and endocrine abnormalities, post exercise malaise, sleep problems, POTS, neurally mediated hypotension, noise or light sensitivity. Many ME patients do not have ME, but they have Chronic Lyme disease with a few co-infections.

Lyme disease is the leading vector-borne epidemic worldwide. It mimics common diseases like fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and MS, as well aspsychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety. Statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that 10 times more individuals have been affected by Lyme than previously suspected

According to preliminary statistics released by the CDC in America, about 300,000 new cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the US each year - about 10 times higher than officially reported by the US government and medical bodies previously. This under reporting of Lyme disease remains a problem in the USA and many other countries. Lyme expert, Dr. Richard Horowitz believes that 300,000 is an under-estimate due to inaccurate tests, and he believes that the real figure could be as high 600,000 - 700,000 per year in the USA. There is an epidemic of Lyme disease in the USA and other countries, Lyme disease is a serious threat to public health and needs to treated as such by governments and health bodies. While many still attribute Lyme transmission exclusively to ticks, the bacteria may also be spread by other insects, including mosquitoes, spiders, fleas, and mites. Lyme and it's co-infections can also be transmitted via blood including blood transfusions, body fluids, sexual contact and from mother to fetus. Lyme disease is notoriously difficult to diagnose, in part because of its ability to mimic other disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, ALS, ADHD and Alzheimer's disease. The following news report provides some insights into this.

 

This interview with a medical doctor educated at Yale University and an expert in Lyme disease provides some important medical insights into Chronic Lyme disease

 

Case Definition for Chronic Lyme Disease

Chronic Lyme Disease: A Working Case Definition


Best Tests in the world for Diagnosing Chronic Lyme disease

  • Test for Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. miyamotoi, B. lonestari, B. lusitaniae, B. andersonii, B. japonica, B. turdae, B. tanukii, B. bissettii. These infections depend on one's location or country.
  • The most accurate tests are:
    • Nano particles test to test for Lyme Disease protein fragments or OspA proteins in the urine.
    • The TICK-BORNE BACTERIA FLOW CHIP which can look at: Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Borrelia, Bartonella, Coxiella, Rickettsia, and Francisella.  It is called the Hybrispot and uses PCR followed by a reverse dot blot hybridization based on DNA-Flow technology.  
      The sensitivity is 96% for Bartonella, 100% for Francisella, 94.4% for Coxiella, 100% for Borrelia, 91.3% for Anaplasma, 100% for Rickettsia with no observed cross-reactions
    • Elispot test, this has been approved by the FDA and CDC in America for testing for bacteria infections. Combine this test with CD57 Flow Cytometry test and Borrelia Blot test.
    • Lymespot test (developed by BCA labs)
    • Seraspot test (Armin labs)
    • High magnification dark field microscope to identify infections in blood, urine and tissue. You can view, photograph or video actual spirochetes and other infections in the blood, urine or tissue
    • Culture Lyme from blood, urine, spinal fluids or inflamed tissue
    • PCR test of urine. This is being developed. The would be the best test to detect Lyme DNA and spirochetes, as Lyme lives in and is highly concentrated in the bladder.
    • PCR test of inflamed tissue, suspected Lyme infection
    • Bioresonance testing
    • Lyme DNA testing and other Genetic tests to detect the presence of Lyme genes in blood, urine, spinal fluid or tissue
    • Molecular Diagnostics
      See the Paper
      Progress in the molecular diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ružic-Sabljic E, Cerar T. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2016 Nov 28:1-12

Top Labs in the World for Testing

  • Combining 4 or more different types of tests increases accuracy up to 100%.
  • The following medical clinic in Germany - Borreliose Centrum Augsburg is one of the top clinics in the world for diagnosing and treating Chronic Lyme disease
  • Armin Labs is one of the top laboratories in the world and carries out various lyme tests and co-infection tests. Highly accurate and reliable.
  • Labs which use The TICK-BORNE BACTERIA FLOW CHIP which can look at: Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Borrelia, Bartonella, Coxiella, Rickettsia, and Francisella.  It is called the Hybrispot and uses PCR followed by a reverse dot blot hybridization based on DNA-Flow technology.  
    The sensitivity is 96% for Bartonella, 100% for Francisella, 94.4% for Coxiella, 100% for Borrelia, 91.3% for Anaplasma, 100% for Rickettsia with no observed cross-reactions
  • Get a microbiologist or advanced laboratory to carry out high magnification dark field microscope to identify infections in blood, urine and tissue. You can view, photograph or video actual spirochetes and other infections in the blood, urine or tissue.
  • Advanced Laboratory Services is one of the top labs in the world for Lyme disease testing. This does a Borrelia culture test which is almost 100% accurate.
  • Fry Labs provide advanced microscopy tests, live blood analysis and PCR
  • Ask for Q-RiBb test in a reputable private laboratory
  • Imugen has an excellent reputation for testing


Tests for Lyme Co-infections - Chlamydia pneumonia, Babesia, Herpes family viruses, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Bartonella, Strep A and B, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Yersinia, Toxoplasma gondi, and Coxsackie virus

Many patients with Chronic Lyme disease also have co-infections. The combination of infections in addition to Chronic Lyme disease can cause serious illness, disability, exhaustion and damage to the heart, immune system, nervous system, brain, and internal organs, and the body over time.

Laboratories

  • Armin Labs carry out iSpot tests which are highly accurate
  • Fry Labs provide advanced microscopy tests, live blood analysis and PCR


Does Chronic Lyme disease exist ? The Scientific Evidence

- Findings of Dr. Daniel Cameron and other doctors
- Research papers
- Research Listings
- Lecture by Dr. Alan McDonald in London 2016
- Interview with famous French medical doctor who spent over 15 years treating Chronic Lyme in France
- Important new research papers
Cameron DJ, Johnson LB, Maloney EL. Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 1-33 (2014)
Tseng YJ, Cami A, Goldmann DA, DeMaria A, Jr., Mandl KD. Incidence and Patterns of Extended-Course Antibiotic Therapy in Patients Evaluated for Lyme Disease. Clin Infect Dis, (2015).
- Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease. DOI:10.1586/14787210.2014.940900. Daniel J Cameron, Lorraine B Johnson & Elizabeth L Maloney pages 1103-1135
- NHS Lyme Disease Guidelines: an evidence-based critique

Inadequate and Inaccurate Lab tests in Ireland, UK, Britain and several other countries
Lyme is capable of evading immune system detection over time, as it can exist in 4 forms - spirochetes, cyst, intracellular, and biofilm. It can move into tissues, joints, nerves, etc. and remain resident for years and decades, causing damage and autoimmune reactions. The Elisa Test and Western Blot test given by most doctors are not reliable and are inaccurate. They provide false negatives in many cases of Chronic Lyme disease. PCR lacks specificity, and is not reliable.  Table 5 of Aguero-Rosenfeld et al., shows that 2-tier testing of 47 patients with EM rash had a sensitivity of 40% in acute phase patients and 66% in convalescent phase patients. This means that 60% of ‘acute phase’ and 34% of ‘convalescent phase’ patient’s 2-tier tests produced false-negatives. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.../arti.../PMC1195970/table/t5/)
Numerous other peer-reviewed scientific evaluations of NHS-type tests confirm their inherent unreliability.

This is confirmed by research:
- see research findings at Healing Lyme and Co-infections by Buhner (2015) pages 48-54
- Ang et al. (2011)
- Donta (2012)
- Jiang et al. (2010)
- Borgermans et al. (2014)

Two comprehensive reviews of the accuracy of standard tests for Lyme, in Europe (1) and the US (2), showed that the same sample of blood could test positive or negative depending on which lab it was sent to, or even if tested again in the same lab. Worse still for those with suspected Borrelia infections, the Polish National Institute of Health has reported that patients with low or negative antibody levels have tested positive using other more sensitive techniques. Specific DNA capture and culturing showed that there were live bacteria in their body fluids (3) indicating that those with negative blood tests could be even more ill than those who have circulating antibodies. The problem of co-infections with other organisms is another complicating factor.

  1. Hunfeld, K.P., Stanek, G., Straube, E., Hagedorne, H-J., et al. Quality of Lyme serology. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002; 114(13-14): 591 - 600
  2. Bakken, L.L., Callister, S.M., Wand, P.J., Schell, R.F. Interlaboratory comparison of test results for detection of Lyme disease by 516 participants in the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene/ College of American Pathologists proficiency-testing program. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35:537 – 43
  3. Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, S., Chmielewski, T. Limitation of serological testing for Lyme borreliosis: Evaluation of ELISA and Western blot in comparison with PCR and culture methods. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002; 114(13-14): 601 - 5

    This means many patients are given a false diagnosis and remain sick with Lyme disease for years and decades. There are other more accurate tests used in Germany and some states in the USA, see listing of laboratories below.

 43% of antibody tests (of the kind used by the NHS in Britain and HSE in Ireland) actually produce false negative results.
Source: John Caudwell's web site https://caudwell-lyme.net/ contains some information on the inaccurate and inadequate Western blot test and Elisa test, and the problem of false negatives.

Read - NHS Lyme Disease Guidelines: an evidence-based critique

The Virginia parliament passed a law in 2013 requiring medical doctors to tell patients (in writing) that the western blot and Elisa tests are inaccurate and that a negative test result does not rule out Lyme disease. Another law was passed in 2016, enabling doctors to provide antibiotics beyond the 28 day limit imposed by old guidelines. This facilitates treatment of Chronic Lyme disease.
Sources: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-michael-conner/a-big-week-for-lyme-disea_b_9230980.html
http://www.icontact-archive.com/FBkbi1IUxiGEZy8CZmrP876MkNs2PR86?w=2

Also Connecticut Attorney General's Investigation Reveals Flawed Lyme Disease Guideline Process, IDSA Agrees To Reassess Guidelines, Install Independent Arbiter

Health bodies and agencies are not treating the complications of long term Lyme infection such as
- Lyme carditis
- Heart arrhythmia and heart failure
- Neuroborreliosis and neurological disorders caused by Lyme
- Thyroid disease
- Auto-immunuity caused by Lyme
- Dental damage caused by Lyme
- Lyme rage and mood disorders
- Lyme arthritis
- Sleep disorders caused by Lyme
- Chronic pain
- Degeneration of joints and cartilage from Lyme

Transmission of Disease
Lyme and it's co-infections can be transmitted via
- ticks, mosquitoes, spiders, fleas, and mites
- blood, including transfusions of blood
- body fluids
- sexual contact
- from mother to fetus
This applies to acute Lyme infection and chronic Lyme infection.


Diagnostic Information

  • The following web site provides up to date information on best medical practises for diagnosing and treating Chronic Lyme disease - http://www.ilads.org/
  • Test for Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. miyamotoi
  • Chronic Lyme disease is often accompanied by co-infections such as Chlamydia pneumonia, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Bartonella, Yersinia, Toxoplasma gondi, Mycoplasma, and Coxsackie virus. The combination of infections in addition to Chronic Lyme disease can cause serious illness, disability, exhaustion and damage to the heart, immune system, nervous system, brain, and internal organs, and the body over time.
  • Please downlaod the following diagnostic and treatment guidelines by Dr. Burrascano, a medical dotor with many years experience in treating the illness - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease and hand this paper to your doctor / medical consultant
  • Please download the following information leaflet about Lyme Neuroborreliosis, a complication of Chronic Lyme disease What is Lyme Neuroborreliosis
  • Biofilms and antibiotic resistant bacteria
    For info about Biofilms and antibiotic resistant bacteria, click on the followig link - http://mpkb.org/home/pathogenesis/microbiota/biofilm
    Carry out diagnostic tests for Biofilms in areas of inflammation and pain.

Doctors

  • Dr. Richard Horowitz, USA

Personal Stories of People who suffered from Chronic Lyme
The following news article appeared in the Irish Independent newspaper in November 2013. It shows that that many thousands of people are not being properly diagnosed with Lyme's disease and that neglect of this for many years and decades can lead to serious health problems and premature deaths.
Poor diagnosis exposes hundreds to potentially deadly Lyme disease. Irish Independent newspaper, 22/11/2013

The case of Elaine Griffin is very relevant to ME. She was diagnosed with ME, CFS, glandular fever, and several other illnesses. She went to several doctors and hospital consultants but they all failed to provide her with an accurate diagnosis and effective treatments. She suffered for many years not knowing what illness she really had. Finally she went to a top medical clinic and was diagnosed with Chronic Lyme disease and several co-infections. She is now receiving medical treatment for this and making a gradual recovery. View Elaine Griffins web site by clicking here

Here is a news story about a woman who was diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. She tested for chronic Lyme disease using Elisa and Western Blot and the tests were negative. These tests are inaccurate. Several months later she got tested using the IgenX labs and she tested positive for chronic Lyme disease. She got treatment for this and recovered from her illness.
http://www.everydayhealth.com/columns/my-health-story/surviving-lyme-disease-missed-diagnosis/

The following news articles give an example of the negative effects of Chronic Lyme disease, especially when inadequate, substandard and outdated tests are used and provide false negatives.
- Living with Lyme disease
- Living with Lyme Disease: 'I was throwing up all day, I couldn't see properly, I was confused and had heart palpitations'

The video below relates the story of a boy diagnosed with ME and other illnesses. In fact, he had Chronic Lyme disease.

 

  

Documentary films about the Illness

Lyme Disease & Co-infections
Lyme infections often comes with other infections, known as co-infections. A person with Lyme disease will typically have 2 or more other serious bacteria or parasite infections. The more infections a person has the more ill and disabled they become.

Financial Costs of Chronic Lyme disease
Patients in the UK with long-term Lyme disease are currently being prescribed, on average, £18,000 worth of drugs each year to cover up the symptoms of their infection. Lyme disease patients cost, on average, £5,000 a year in hospital visits, excluding the actual cost of their treatment and tests.
Source: https://caudwell-lyme.net/what-is-the-problem-with-lyme-disease-in-the-uk/

The costs are similar for Ireland and other European countries. Hundreds of millions of euros, pounds and dollars are wasted every year by governments treating the symptoms of Chronic Lyme disease while ignoring the root causes. This is placing massive and unnecessary financial burdens on health systems in many countries.

Human Cost - Deaths from Chronic Lyme disease
http://whatislyme.com/rip-lyme-friends-memorial/

Dr. Richard Horowitz's Medical Lectures and his presentation to the Belgian Parliament in 2014
The following presentation was made to the Belgian Parliament in June 2014 by Dr. Richard Horowitz, an American medical doctor who has treated over 10,000 patients with Chronic Lyme, CFS, and other infectious diseases
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSx3KdFaupA&t=8m40s

The following medical lectures were delivered to medical doctors, nurses, scientists and patients in the USA

Discussion of his book 'Why Can't I get Better ?' by Dr. Richard Horowitz

 

Lyme Disease and Neurological Diseases
Chronic Lyme disease can result in infections of the nerves and nervous system, the brain, the heart, the joints, immune system cells and many other body parts. Lyme Neuroborreliosis is one example of Lyme infection of the nervous system and brain. There is a famous case of a British woman who was diagnosed with MS in a hospital and received treatments for MS. After some time, she decided to do a chronic Lyme disease test. She tested positive for Lyme disease and received treatments for this and recovered. She did not have MS, but the results of brain scans and neurological tests for MS were identical to those for chronic Lyme disease. This a remarkable new medical finding, and shows that infections of the brain and nervous system can appear like the symptoms of MS - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2343062/Mother-diagnosed-MS-facing-life-wheelchair-cured--discovered-symptoms-TICK-BITE.html


In recent studies it has been shown that many cases of Multiple Sclerosis have a bacterial origin. When treated with long-term antibiotics, many of the MS patients had a significant return of bodily function. Many who had been in wheelchairs are now walking after treating with long-term antibiotics. New studies in Alzheimer’s patients are showing the borrelia spirochete in both spiral and cyst forms in almost 95% of the autopsied brain tissue samples. High levels of Herpes infections are also being found in the brains of Alzheimers patients (Alzheimer’s disease could be caused by herpes virus, warn experts). Similar results have been shown in studies involving ALS and Parkinson’s disease. Chronic Lyme disease and co-infections are becoming implicated in many neurological ilnesses.

- Lecture by Dr. Alan McDonald in London 2016
- Lecture by Dr. Alan McDonald in 2016
More research listings in section below


Research showing Chronic Lyme Disease implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease

- Lecture by Dr. Alan McDonald in 2016
- Lyme Biofilms Alive in Alzheimer's Disease Plaques
- Link betwen Lyme disease and Alzheimer's disease
- Lyme disease relationship to Alzheimer's disease
- Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel Hypothesis Integrating Spirochetes, Biofilm, and the Immune System.Allen HB, Morales D, Jones K, Joshi S (2016) J Neuroinfect Dis 7:200. doi:10.4172/2314-7326.1000200
- MacDonald, A.B., Miranda, J.M. Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Hum Pathol. 1987; 18(7): 759 - 61
- Miklossy, J., Khalili, K., Gern, L., Ericson, R.L., Darekar, P., Borrelia burgdorferi persists in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2004; 6(6): 639 – 49
- Miklossy J. Alzheimers disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Kochs' and Hill's criteria. Jounral of Neuroinflammation. 2007;8:90
- Miklossy J. Alzheimers disease - a neurospirochetosis ? Neuroreport 1993;4(7):841-8
- Miklossy J. Chronic Inflammation and amyloidogenesis in Alzheimers disese: the role of spirochetes. PhD thesis 2005
-
Miklossy J. Chronic or Late neuroborreliosis: Analysis of evidence compared to chronic or late neurosyphilis. Open Neurology J. 2012;6(Suppl 1-M9) 146-57
- Miklossy J. Emerging role of Pathogens in Alzheimers disease. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2011; 13:e30

- Lyme and co-infections such as Chlamydia severely damage the Golgi structures in Alzheimers disease.
- Buhner in Healing Lyme and Co-infections (2015) states that Mycoplasmas, Chlamydia and Borrelia are commonly found in the lesions and brains of people who have Alzhiemers, MS and ALS and other neurological illnesses.
- Alzheimers disease and Herpes infections & Bacteria infections

Research showing role of Lyme disease in MS
- Lecture by Dr. Alan McDonald in London 2016
- Fritzsche, M. Geographic and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia. Int J Health Geogr.2002; 1(1): 5
- Fritzsche, M. Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis. Int J Health Geogr. 2002; 1(1): 2
- Chmielewska-Badora, J., Cisak, E., Dutkiewicz, J. Lyme borreliosis and multiple sclerosis: any connection? Ann Agric Environ Med. 2000; 7: 141 - 3
- Brorson, O., Brorson, S.H., Henriksen, T.H., Skogen, P.R.,Schoyen, R. Association between multiple sclerosis and cystic structures in cerebrospinal fluid. Infection 2001; 29(6): 315 - 9
- Lyme and co-infections such as Chlamydia severely damage the Golgi structures in MS.
- Buhner in Healing Lyme and Co-infections (2015) states that Mycoplasmas, Chlamydia and Borrelia are commonly found in the lesions and brains of people who have Alzhiemers, MS and ALS and other neurological illnesses.


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